Closing Date 31 October The Research Project Next generation sequencing techniques have increased the likelihood of researchers and test providers discovering incidental results. For example, tests for carriers of an eye disease gene may actually discover another pre-disposition to a disease, such as cancer. These incidental findings may have health implications for consumers or research participants.
Types[ edit ] Juvenile delinquency, or offending, can be separated into three categories: There may also be biological factors, such as high levels of serotoningiving them a difficult temper and poor self-regulation, and a lower resting heart rate, which may lead to fearlessness.
Delinquent activity, particularly the involvement in youth gangs, may also be caused by a desire for protection against violence or financial hardship, as the offenders view delinquent activity as a means of surrounding themselves with resources to protect against these threats.
Most of these influences tend to be caused by a mix of both genetic and environmental factors. This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves.
These factors may lead to the child having low IQ and may increase the rate of illiteracy. It is also more likely that children of single parents may live in poverty, which is strongly associated with juvenile delinquency. Children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them.
Although children are rejected by peers for many reasons, it is often the case that they are rejected due to violent or aggressive behavior.
This often leads to an impulsive and aggressive reaction. Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior.
Rational choice[ edit ] Classical criminology stresses that causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment.
For classicists, offenders are motivated by rational self-interestand the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasized. Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice.
Social disorganization[ edit ] Current positivist approaches generally focus on the culture. A type of criminological theory attributing variation in crime and delinquency over time and among territories to the absence or breakdown of communal institutions e.
Strain[ edit ] Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton. He felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society.
Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty those in poverty have in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means. Merton believed that drug users are in this category. A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families would have poor educational attainment in the first place.
More importantly is the fact that much youth crime does not have an economic motivation. Strain theory fails to explain violent crimethe type of youth crime that causes most anxiety to the public. Differential association[ edit ] The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime.
It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves.
However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending. Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially. Labeling[ edit ] Labeling theory is a concept within Criminology that aims to explain deviant behavior from the social context rather than looking at the individual themselves.
It is part of Interactionism criminology that states that once young people have been labeled as criminal they are more likely to offend.
The four types of control can help prevent juvenile delinquency are:Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is the act of participating in unlawful behavior as minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).
Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers and courts.A juvenile delinquent in the United States is a person who is typically below The Origins of Human Love and Violence James W.
Prescott, Ph.D. · Institute of Humanistic Science From Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, Volume 10, Number 3: Spring , pp. Oct 31, · Best Answer: Maybe something like: Because the rate of recidivism for sex offenders is so high, and because of the devastation this particular form of violent crime has on its victims, the penalties for even first time offenders should be dramatically increased in the interest of public benjaminpohle.com: Resolved.
What does a good thesis statement look like? There is one big tip on writing a good essay almost every article on the web gives you. It’s to come up with a clear and specific thesis statement.
Nov 26, · Research Paper on Sex Offenders The law is a reflection of the values of society, and therefore needs reform as the needs and values of society change. Conditions that may lead to law reform include failure of existing laws, international law reform, and the impact of new technology.
The World’s Largest Curated Collection of Dissertations and Theses.
As the official offsite dissertations repository for the U.S. Library of Congress, ProQuest is committed to preserving, collecting and distributing graduate works from institutions all over the world.