Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times.
The Merchant of Venice was their first performance, shown initially on September 15, Most likely, the first plays written in America were by European-born authors—we know of original plays being written by Spaniards, Frenchmen and Englishmen dating back as early as —although no plays were printed in America until Robert Hunter's Androboros in Still, in the early years, most of the plays produced came from Europe; only with Godfrey's The Prince of Parthia in do we get a professionally produced play written by an American, although it was a last-minute substitute for Thomas Forrest's comic opera The Disappointment; or, The Force of Credulityand although the first play to treat American themes seriously, Ponteach; or, the Savages of America by Robert Rogershad been published in London a year earlier.
The Revolutionary period was a boost for dramatists, for whom the political debates were fertile ground for both satire, as seen in the works of Mercy Otis Warren and Colonel Robert Munford, and for plays about heroism, as in the works of Hugh Henry Brackenridge.
The post-war period saw the birth of American social comedy in Royall Tyler 's The Contrastwhich established a much-imitated version of the "Yankee" character, here named "Jonathan".
The Walnut's first theatrical production, The Rivals, was staged in Apace with the country's westward expansionsome entrepreneurs operated floating theaters on barges or riverboats that would travel from town to town.
A large town could afford a long "run"—or period of time during which a touring company would stage consecutive multiple performances—of a production, and ina single play was shown in New York City for an unprecedented three weeks.
William Shakespeare 's works were commonly performed. American plays of the period were mostly melodramasa famous example of which was Uncle Tom's Cabinadapted by George Aikenfrom the novel of the same name by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
It was the third attempt to have an African-American theater, but this was the most successful of them all. The theater was shut down in African-American works would not be regarded again until the s Harlem Renaissance.
Jessie Bond wrote that by the middle of the 19th century, "The stage was at a low ebb, Elizabethan glories and Georgian artificialities had alike faded into the past, stilted tragedy and vulgar farce were all the would-be playgoer had to choose from, and the theatre had become a place of evil repute".
Victorian burlesquea form of bawdy comic theater mocking high art and culture, was imported from England about and in America became a form of farce in which females in male roles mocked the politics and culture of the day. Criticized for its sexuality and outspokenness, this form of entertainment was hounded off the "legitimate stage" and found itself relegated to saloons and barrooms.
The drama of the pre-war period tended to be a derivative in form, imitating European melodramas and romantic tragedies, but native in content, appealing to popular nationalism by dramatizing current events and portraying American heroism.
But playwrights were limited by a set of factors, including the need for plays to be profitable, the middle-brow tastes of American theater-goers, and the lack of copyright protection and compensation for playwrights.
This period saw the popularity of certain native character types, especially the "Yankee", the "Negro" and the "Indian", exemplified by the characters of JonathanSambo and Metamora.
Meanwhile, increased immigration brought a number of plays about the Irish and Germans, which often dovetailed with concerns over temperance and Roman Catholic.
This period also saw plays about American expansion to the West including plays about Mormonism and about women's rights.
At the same time, America had created new dramatic forms in the Tom Showsthe showboat theater and the minstrel show. The advent of American rail transport allowed production companies, its actors, and large, elaborate sets to travel easily between towns, which made permanent theaters in small towns feasible.
The invention and practical application of electric lighting also led to changes to and improvements of scenery styles and the designing of theater interiors and seating areas.
Minstrel show performers Rollin Howard in female costume and George Griffin, c. For playwrights, the period after the War brought more financial reward and aesthetic respect including professional criticism than was available earlier.
In terms of form, spectacles, melodramas and farces remained popular, but poetic drama and romanticism almost died out completely due to the new emphasis upon realism, which was adopted by serious drama, melodrama and comedy alike. This realism was not quite the European realism of Ibsen 's Ghostsbut a combination of scenic realism e.
The most ambitious effort towards realism during this period came from James Hernewho was influenced by the ideas of Ibsen, Hardy and Zola regarding realism, truth, and literary quality; his most important achievement, Margaret Flemingenacts the principles he expounded in his essay "Art for Truth's Sake in the Drama".
Although Fleming did not appeal to audiences—critics and audiences felt it dwelt too much on unseemly topics and included improper scenes, such as Margaret nursing her husband's bastard child onstage—other forms of dramatic realism were becoming more popular in melodrama e.
This was born from an earlier American practice of having singers and novelty acts perform between acts in a standard play. George Burns was a very long-lived American comedian who started out in the vaudeville community, but went on to enjoy a career running until the s.
Some vaudeville theaters built between about and managed to survive as well, though many went through periods of alternate use, most often as movie theaters until the second half of the century saw many urban populations decline and multiplexes built in the suburbs.Is Femininity Weak in Macbeth?
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Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Is Femininity Weak in Macbeth?
- ### 1st part of essay ### William Shakespeare wrote Macbeth in The play was set in Scotland, The sound track for the War Years was Big Band Music, but the universal sweetheart was a triple threat, the lovely Andrews Sisters.
More "girl next door" pretty than pin-up girl glamorous, the sister's songs were filled with the optimism and pluck that helped countless G.I.s endure for the duration. Foreign audiences associate American media with big budget spectacle. Consider the fact that Hollywood is the only place in the world where millions of dollars are used to make films and TV shows about sensational topics.