Marie Anne Blondin Lived the interior martyrdom of rejection. She lived the rest of her life hidden in the laundry room. Ignatius of AntiochAD -- disciple of St.
The linguistic region comprises east-central France, western portions of Switzerland, and the Aosta Valley of Italy with the adjacent alpine valleys of the Piedmont. This area covers territories once occupied by pre-Roman Celtsincluding the AllobrogesSequaniHelvetiiCeutronesand Salassi.
By the 5th century, the region was controlled by the Burgundians. The antiquated character of the Savoyard patois is striking. One can note it not only in phonetics and morphology, but also in the vocabulary, where one finds numerous words and directions that clearly disappeared from French.
French, Occitan, and Italian. Communities where speakers lived were generally mountainous and isolated from one another. The internal boundaries of the entire speech area were divided by wars and religious conflicts.
The edict explicitly replaced Latin and by implication, any other language with French as the language of law and the courts Grillet,p. An amendment to the constitution of Italy  changed the status of the former province to an autonomous region which gives the Aosta Valley special powers to make its own decisions.
Residents saw the region's economy expand and the population increase from towhich encouraged them to stay and continue long-held traditions.
The language is now explicitly protected by an Italian presidential decree  and a federal law. Lack of jobs has caused migration out of the Piedmont's alpine valleys, abetting the language's decline.
Speakers live in western cantons where Swiss French predominates and converse in dialects mainly as a second language.
Currently, its use in agrarian daily life is rapidly disappearing. However, in a few isolated places the decline is considerably less steep.
It also carries a generally low social status. This situation affects most regional languages that comprise the linguistic wealth of France. Speakers of regional languages are aging and mostly rural.
Comprehension of one dialect by speakers of another is often difficult. Nowhere is it spoken in a "pure form" and there is no a "standard reference language" that the modern generic label used to identify the language may indicate. Only in recent years have speakers not specialists in linguistics become conscious of the language's collective identity.
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli The language region was first recognized in the 19th century during advances in research into the nature and structure of human speech.
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli —a pioneering linguistanalyzed the unique phonetic and structural characteristics of numerous spoken dialects. In an article written about and published later, he offered a solution to existing disagreements about dialect frontiers and proposed a new linguistic region.
The name Romand has been in use regionally in Switzerland at least sincewhen notaries in Fribourg were directed to write their minutes in both German and Rommant. It continues to appear in the names of many Swiss cultural organizations today.
Other areas also had historical or political claims to such names, especially Meune, Some contemporary speakers and writers prefer the name Arpitan because it underscores the independence of the language and does not imply a union to any other established linguistic group.
Some Savoyard speakers call their language sarde. This is a colloquial term used because their ancestors were subjects of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the House of Savoy until Savoie and Haute-Savoie were annexed by France in The language is called gaga in the Forez region of France and appears in the titles of dictionaries and other regional publications.Introduction Summary: The introduction () provides background information on women and visions in the Middle Ages, discussing why women in particular were open to visionary experiences and the seven stages of a visionary life.
setting the life and writings of Margaret of Oingt into the context of women in the Carthusian order, and the broader world of female piety, mysticism and religious writing. The writings of Margaret of Oingt presented in this volume are taken from the only. Apr 08, · Do you want to remove all your recent searches?
All recent searches will be deleted. Margaret of Oingt was one of the many women living during the Middle Ages who turned to mysticism to become closer to God. Mysticism, unlike scholasticism, takes a direct approach to God using sensory perception, not reason.
For this purpose, it allowed women . Oingt, Margaret d'. The Writings of Margaret of Oingt: Medieval Prioress and Mystic (Newburyport, MA: Focus Information Group, ). Margaret of Oingt was born around into a noble family in the French Beaujolais region, and became prioress of the Carthusian charterhouse of Poletains; visionary and mystic, her writings are intelligent and humorous.
Included here are the Page of Meditations, on sin and salvation; the Mirror, a vision of Christ; the Life of the Virgin .