Axis initiative and Allied reaction The outbreak of war By the early part of the German dictator Adolf Hitler had become determined to invade and occupy Poland. Poland, for its part, had guarantees of French and British military support should it be attacked by Germany. Hitler intended to invade Poland anyway, but first he had to neutralize the possibility that the Soviet Union would resist the invasion of its western neighbour. In a secret protocol of this pact, the Germans and the Soviets agreed that Poland should be divided between them, with the western third of the country going to Germany and the eastern two-thirds being taken over by the U.
State Department, the second Red Scare predated and outlasted McCarthy, and its machinery far exceeded the reach of a single maverick politician.
Members of these committees and their staff cooperated with the FBI to identify and pursue alleged subversives. The federal employee loyalty program, formalized in by President Harry Truman in response to right-wing allegations that his administration harbored Communist spies, soon was imitated by local and state governments as well as private employers.
The second Red Scare did not involve pogroms or gulags, but the fear of unemployment was a powerful tool for stifling criticism of the status quo, whether in economic policy or social relations. Ostensibly seeking to protect democracy by eliminating communism from American life, anticommunist crusaders ironically undermined democracy by suppressing the expression of dissent.
This episode lasted longer and was more pervasive than the first Red Scare, which followed World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution of State Department, the second Red Scare in fact predated and outlasted McCarthy, and its machinery far exceeded the reach of a single politician.
But that term is too narrow to capture the complex origins, diverse manifestations, and sprawling cast of characters involved in the multidimensional conflict that was the second Red Scare.
Defining the American Communist Party as a serious threat to national security, government and nongovernment actors at national, state, and local levels developed a range of mechanisms for identifying and punishing Communists and their alleged sympathizers. For two people, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, espionage charges resulted in execution.
Many thousands of Americans faced congressional committee hearings, FBI investigations, loyalty tests, and sedition laws; negative judgements in those arenas brought consequences ranging from imprisonment to deportation, loss of passport, or, most commonly, long-term unemployment.
Interpretations of the second Red Scare have ranged between two poles, one emphasizing the threat posed to national security by the Communist Party and the other emphasizing the threat to democracy posed by political repression.
In the s, newly accessible Soviet and U. Scholars disagree about whether all these people understood themselves to be engaged in espionage and about how much damage they did to national security, but it is clear that the threat of espionage was real.
So too, however, was repression in the name of catching spies. The second Red Scare remains a hotly debated topic because Americans continue to differ on the optimal balance between security and liberty and how to achieve it.
Anticommunism has taken especially virulent forms in the United States because of distinctive features of its political tradition.
This popular predisposition in turn has been easier for powerful interests to exploit in the American context because of the absence of a parliamentary system which elsewhere produced a larger number of political parties as well as stronger party discipline and of a strong civil service bureaucracy.
Great Britain, a U. The 19th-century writings of Karl Marx gave birth to an international socialist movement that denounced capitalism for exploiting the working class.
Some socialists pursued reform through existing political systems while others advocated revolution. The American Communist Party CPUSAestablished inbelonged to the Moscow-based Comintern, which provided funding and issued directives, ostensibly to encourage Communist revolutions around the world but in practice to support Soviet foreign-policy objectives.
The CPUSA remained small and factionalized until the international economic crisis and the rise of European fascism in the s increased its appeal.
Not always aware of the participation of Communists, diverse activists worked through hundreds of Popular Front organizations on behalf of labor, racial and religious minorities, and civil liberties. The Popular Front period ended abruptly in Augustwhen the Soviet and German leaders signed a nonaggression pact.
In William Z. Riven by internal disputes and increasingly under attack from anticommunists, the CPUSA became more isolated.The second Red Scare did not involve pogroms or gulags, but the fear of unemployment was a powerful tool for stifling criticism of the status quo, whether in economic policy or social relations.
Video: McCarthyism and the Red Scare: Definition, Causes & Effects The fear of communism, known as the Red Scare, led to a national witch hunt for suspected communist supporters, which was known. Oct 29, · 10 Roads That Will Scare You Stupid^10 Roads That Will Scare You Stupid^We have all heard our fair share of urban legends, visited some "haunted" houses, been to these locations willingly.
But what if we were simply trying to get from point A to point B? We had no intention of exposing ourselves to the paranormal, the . Red Scare Fact 7: Causes: WW1 ended on November 11, but the Red Scare was fueled in by a year of rapid inflation, rising prices, high unemployment, race riots and civil unrest in America with demonstrations and a series of crippling strikes.
A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism. The term is most often used to refer to two periods in the history of the United States with this name.
APUSH Review Sheet for AP US History Review: Packet, Notes, and Study Guide.