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Introduction Climate-smart agriculture CSA may be defined as an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural development under the new realities of climate change Lipper et al. CSA aims to sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes from crops, livestock and fish, without having a negative impact on the environment.
This, in turn, will raise food and nutritional security. A key concept related to raising productivity is sustainable intensification Adaptation: CSA aims to reduce the exposure of farmers to short-term risks, while also strengthening their resilience by building their capacity to adapt and prosper in the face of shocks and longer-term stresses.
Particular attention is given to protecting the ecosystem services which ecosystems provide to farmers and others. These services are essential for maintaining productivity and our ability to adapt to climate changes.
This implies that we reduce emissions for each calorie or kilo of food, fibre and fuel that we produce. That we avoid deforestation from agriculture. And that we manage soils and trees in ways that maximizes their potential to acts as carbon sinks and absorb CO2 from the atmosphere.
Contrary to conventional agricultural development, CSA systematically integrates climate change into the planning and development of sustainable agricultural systems Lipper et al. Ideally, CSA produces triple-win outcomes: But often it is not possible to achieve all three.
Frequently, when it comes time to implement CSA, trade-offs must be made. This requires us to identify synergies and weigh the costs and benefits of different options based on stakeholder objectives identified through participatory approaches see figure 1. Synergies and trade-offs for adaptation, mitigation and food security Source; Vermeulen et al.
CSA maintains ecosystems services: Ecosystems provide farmers with essential services, including clean air, water, food and materials.
It is imperative that CSA interventions do not contribute to their degradation. CSA has multiple entry points at different levels: CSA should not be perceived as a set of practices and technologies. It has multiple entry points, ranging from the development of technologies and practices to the elaboration of climate change models and scenarios, information technologies, insurance schemes, value chains and the strengthening of institutional and political enabling environments.
As such, it goes beyond single technologies at the farm level and includes the integration of multiple interventions at the food system, landscape, value chain or policy level.
CSA is context specific: What is climate-smart in one-place may not be climate-smart in another, and no interventions are climate-smart everywhere or every time.
Interventions must take into account how different elements interact at the landscape level, within or among ecosystems and as a part of different institutional arrangements and political realities.
The fact that CSA often strives to reach multiple objectives at the system level makes it particularly difficult to transfer experiences from one context to another.
CSA engages women and marginalised groups: To achieve food security goals and enhance resilience, CSA approaches must involve the poorest and most vulnerable groups. These groups often live on marginal lands which are most vulnerable to climate events like drought and floods.
They are, thus, most likely to be affected by climate change. Gender is another central aspect of CSA. Women typically have less access and legal right to the land which they farm, or to other productive and economic resources which could help build their adaptive capacity to cope with events like droughts and floods Huyer et al.
Only by doing so, is it possible to identify the most appropriate interventions and form the partnerships and alliances needed to enable sustainable development. View case studies of CSA interventions Examples of specific CSA interventions include soil managementdrought-tolerant maize, dairy development, farming catfish intensively, carbon finance to restore crop fields, waste-reducing rice thresher, rainfall forecasts and incentive system for low-carbon agriculture.
To reduce vulnerability and improve food security, the Drought-tolerant maize for Africa DTMA project released drought-tolerant maize varieties between and Yields of the new varieties are superior to those of currently available commercial maize varieties under both stress and optimum growing conditions.
In many parts of SSA, climate change projections suggest increased frequency of drought. As the world continues warming, the successful identification and release of maize varieties with greater heat tolerance will become an increasingly important climate risk management adaptation mechanism.
Impacts and lessons learned An ex-ante assessment study by La Rovere et al. In addition, they estimate that drought-tolerant maize could assist more than 4 million people to escape poverty while improving the livelihoods of many millions more.How to Write A Unique Research Paper.
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The short answer is that the research paper is a report summarizing the answers to the research questions you generated in your background research plan. It's a review of the relevant publications (books, magazines, websites) discussing the topic you want to investigate.
The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.
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Then, in what only complicates procedures, all on site during the measuring and recording of these astronomical markers independently made note of cuts, curves and angles in the rock that required technology assumed to be absent in this country until very recent times.