A Contextual Analysis of Learning Disability Policies and Special Education in Malaysia Learning disabilities generally refer to conditions that give rise to significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of knowledge in individuals of average or above-average intelligence Larsen, As students they often underperform in relative to their peers, stemming from an inability to learn via conventional methods of teaching.
Due to increasing awareness of learning diversity in affluent nations, continuous measures have been undertaken not only to bridge educational inequity, but also to protect and recognize rights of a stratum of society that is prone to social discrimination and negative stereotyping.
Malaysia is home to one of the most contorted and volatile education systems in South East Asia. Controversial policies ranging from medium of instruction to availability of student loans are enacted and abolished frequently due to high political intervention.
As of today, Malaysia still lacks a special education policy that caters to its approximatelyafflicted children. This paper attempts to contextually dissect this issue, focusing on the provisions for individuals with mild to moderate learning disabilities which constitute the largest subcategory.
Malaysia ratified the Salamanca Statement on Special Education only 14 years after its initial codification, and as of today no part of the Inclusive Education Memorandum, drawn up by a coalition of disability related, non-governmental organizations, has been implemented.
The education ministry has noted that the many of their recommendations are too costly to fulfil, even though statistics show that the country allocates only RM million out of its annual RM This is possibly attributable to alignment of public focus towards other popular educational issues stated above, compounded by an expedient belief that the numbers of LD individuals are not significant enough to warrant a hefty portion of the budget.
Proliferate lack of awareness is evident even in the syllabi of teaching colleges. No knowledge  Based on the National Education Budget. Liew Tze Yeen of LD is disseminated in the process of training new school teachers, further propagating ignorance on the existence of these conditions.
Standardized diagnosis methods designed to facilitate early detection and intervention at schools are absent; only a general proficiency tests are administered at grade 1, which by nature may be too early to sift out LD individuals whose symptoms only manifest when school syllabi becomes increasingly difficult at higher grades.
The absence of standardized diagnosis mechanisms may have been pivotal in belligerently distorting head counts of LD individuals, which explains why statistics are usually presented in approximate averages rather than absolute figures. There is also no formal syllabus that is tailored for special education, although one is in the works and hence will not be covered comprehensively in this paper.
Excerpt of Education Act Liew Tze Yeen Returning to the previous point on budgetary problems, cost issues are the most evident at areas concerning the need for professional expertise. To ensure the most accurate possible diagnosis is given, a child psychiatrist is often needed to perform the verdict; Malaysia only houses two of them.
Only 20 special education teachers have been recorded as active practitioners many whom are offering their services in the private sector CPPS, The relevant training costs can be crippling considering the acute lack of specialist knowledge in both fields in the nation would mean that the initial trainers will have to be sourced internationally.
Given the existing circumstances, it is impossible to meet the number of personnel demanded by the memorandum within a short time frame. From the above discussion, we can conclude that: None of the proposed solutions can be implemented within a short time frame. The next section attempts to briefly illustrate a number of short term remedial measures that can be undertaken while other permanent efforts such as human capital modifications are underway.
Diagrammatical illustration of stakeholders The picture illustrates stakeholders and their contextual relationships pertinent to their individual positions on disabilities, including learning disabilities and special education.
The Venn diagram points to disarticulate efforts that vary from entity to entity, for example, the circle that denotes educational needs where NGOs and the MOE share little overlapping stances when it comes to the issue of special education.
Similarly, the involvement of the MOH is completely removed from early intervention programmes and administering of special education, the prior being a critical element at successfully managing learning disabilities.
The MOH is only bridged to the EIP circle via an unnamed link, possibly referring to external referrals of patients for diagnostic services. Asymmetrically sized circles also indicate that the efforts of entities vary in magnitude.
Attempts to optimize costs may be more productive than vouching for large shifts in the education budget during political turmoil. The recommendations that follow attempts to reconstruct the above into a synchronized framework that optimizes efforts and minimizes costs and redundancy: Please refer to Appendix A for a table for a list abbreviations.
Liew Tze Yeen Figure 3: Ideal Relations among Stakeholders. Instead of attempting to train up and army of experts to be distributed as seen fit, optimizing efforts and leveraging on latent resources available from other entities will render aim more achievable with a lower cost in a shorter time frame.
Liew Tze Yeen 1. Amendments on the Existing Legislative System Effective institutional recognition is often the first and largest step in legitimizing not only the rights, but most importantly the existence of a certain stratum of society.
By codifying the relevant clauses, it establishes the whole phenomenon to the public as an issue to be acted upon by functioning as a conceptual referral point to undertakings that follow.
Touching upon the mention of prescriptive potential, well defined legislation should be made robust with effective enforcement clauses.12 xii Preface important, in his words, it gave him a reason to get out of bed in the morning and it s one of the things that helps [him] to feel free.
I believe art did help him overcome his often-severe depression, find a release from his illness, and discover and nurture a sense of well-being.
The techniques covered in this book are grouped into the following categories: traditional, slicing-based, spectrum-based, statics based, program state-based, machine learning-based, data mining-based, model-based and miscellaneous techniques. Dec 22, · To focus on the special concerns of certain vulnerable groups of people - particularly children, women and minorities - the Ombudsperson Institution has formed three special teams of lawyers: The Children's Rights Team (CRT), the Gender Equality Unit (GEU) and the Non-Discrimination Team (NDT).
Journal of Education and Training Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, October Pages.
Journal of Education and Training Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, October Uploaded by. Redfame Publishing. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email.
Liew Tze Yeen () Mending the Void: A Contextual Analysis of Learning Disability Policies and Special Education in Malaysia Learning disabilities generally refer to conditions that give rise to significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of knowledge in individuals . Because the most frequently employed criterion of a "learning disability" is a significant ability- 12 achievement discrepancy, the paired use of the WIAT and the age-appropriate IQ test provides solid psychometric grounds for .