Aspects of anthropological methods covered are: The module examines the relationship between theory and method within anthropology. We are concerned with the specific techniques that are used by anthropologists as they conduct their fieldwork. This module also draws attention to how ethnographic knowledge produced during fieldwork is both relational and contextual.
History[ edit ] Precursors of transhumanism[ edit ] According to Nick Bostromtranscendentalist impulses have been expressed at least as far back as the quest for immortality in the Epic of Gilgameshas well as in historical quests for the Fountain of Youththe Elixir of Lifeand other efforts to stave off aging and death.
The late 19th to early 20th century movement known as Russian cosmism also incorporated some ideas which later developed into the core of the transhumanist movement.
Fundamental ideas of transhumanism were first advanced in by the British geneticist J. Haldane in his essay Daedalus: Science and the Futurewhich predicted that great benefits would come from the application of advanced sciences to human biology—and that every such advance would first appear to someone as blasphemy continuity theory of ageing essay writer perversion, "indecent and unnatural".
In particular, he was interested in the development of the science of eugenicsectogenesis creating and sustaining life in an artificial environmentand the application of genetics to improve human characteristics, such as health and intelligence.
His article inspired academic and popular interest. Bernala crystallographer at Cambridgewrote The World, the Flesh and the Devil inin which he speculated on the prospects of space colonization and radical changes to human bodies and intelligence through bionic implants and cognitive enhancement.
The term itself, however, derives from an earlier paper by the Canadian philosopher W. Up till now human life has generally been, as Hobbes described it, 'nasty, brutish and short'; the great majority of human beings if they have not already died young have been afflicted with misery… we can justifiably hold the belief that these lands of possibility exist, and that the present limitations and miserable frustrations of our existence could be in large measure surmounted… The human species can, if it wishes, transcend itself—not just sporadically, an individual here in one way, an individual there in another way, but in its entirety, as humanity.
The ideas raised by these thinkers were explored in the science fiction of the s, notably in Arthur C. A Space Odysseyin which an alien artifact grants transcendent power to its wielder.
In the Material and Man section of the manifesto, Noboru Kawazoe suggests that: What I think will be known by all the people. There is no more individual consciousness, only the will of mankind as a whole.
Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an 'intelligence explosion,' and the intelligence of man would be left far behind.
Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make. InFM formerly F. Esfandiarya futurist who taught "new concepts of the human" at The New Schoolin New York Citybegan to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and world views transitional to posthumanity as " transhuman ".
Here, FM lectured on his " Third Way " futurist ideology.
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InVita-More authored the Transhumanist Arts Statement  and, six years later, produced the cable TV show TransCentury Update on transhumanity, a program which reached overviewers.
InEric Drexler published Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology,  which discussed the prospects for nanotechnology and molecular assemblersand founded the Foresight Institute.
As the first non-profit organization to research, advocate for, and perform cryonicsthe Southern California offices of the Alcor Life Extension Foundation became a center for futurists.
InMore, a strategic philosopher, created his own particular transhumanist doctrine, which took the form of the Principles of Extropy, and laid the foundation of modern transhumanism by giving it a new definition: Transhumanism shares many elements of humanism, including a respect for reason and science, a commitment to progress, and a valuing of human or transhuman existence in this life.
InMore and Morrow founded the Extropy Institutea catalyst for networking futurists and brainstorming new memeplexes by organizing a series of conferences and, more importantly, providing a mailing list, which exposed many to transhumanist views for the first time during the rise of cyberculture and the cyberdelic counterculture.
Inphilosophers Nick Bostrom and David Pearce founded the World Transhumanist Association WTAan international non-governmental organization working toward the recognition of transhumanism as a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and public policy.
The study of the ramifications, promises, and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to overcome fundamental human limitations, and the related study of the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies. In possible contrast with other transhumanist organizations, WTA officials considered that social forces could undermine their futurist visions and needed to be addressed.
Outline of transhumanism It is a matter of debate whether transhumanism is a branch of posthumanism and how this philosophical movement should be conceptualised with regard to transhumanism. The latter is often referred to as a variant or activist form of posthumanism by its conservative Christian  and progressive   critics.
A common feature of transhumanism and philosophical posthumanism is the future vision of a new intelligent species, into which humanity will evolve and eventually will supplement or supersede it.
Transhumanism stresses the evolutionary perspective, including sometimes the creation of a highly intelligent animal species by way of cognitive enhancement i. Some secular humanists conceive transhumanism as an offspring of the humanist freethought movement and argue that transhumanists differ from the humanist mainstream by having a specific focus on technological approaches to resolving human concerns i.
In his view, native molecular DNA "continuity" is required for retaining the "self" and no amount of computing power or memory aggregation can replace the essential "stink" of our true genetic identity, which he terms " genity ".
The philosophy of transhumanism is closely related to technoself studiesan interdisciplinary domain of scholarly research dealing with all aspects of human identity in a technological society and focusing on the changing nature of relationships between humans and technology.
While many transhumanist theorists and advocates seek to apply reasonscience and technology for the purposes of reducing poverty, disease, disability and malnutrition around the globe,  transhumanism is distinctive in its particular focus on the applications of technologies to the improvement of human bodies at the individual level.
Many transhumanists actively assess the potential for future technologies and innovative social systems to improve the quality of all lifewhile seeking to make the material reality of the human condition fulfill the promise of legal and political equality by eliminating congenital mental and physical barriers.
Transhumanist philosophers argue that there not only exists a perfectionist ethical imperative for humans to strive for progress and improvement of the human condition, but that it is possible and desirable for humanity to enter a transhuman phase of existence in which humans enhance themselves beyond what is naturally human.
In such a phase, natural evolution would be replaced with deliberate participatory or directed evolution. Some theorists such as Ray Kurzweil think that the pace of technological innovation is accelerating and that the next 50 years may yield not only radical technological advances, but possibly a technological singularitywhich may fundamentally change the nature of human beings.
However, some are also concerned with the possible dangers of extremely rapid technological change and propose options for ensuring that advanced technology is used responsibly.Ageing is the changes in a person over time.
Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. Population ageing is the increase in the number and proportion of older people in society.
Population ageing has three possible causes: migration, longer life expectancy, and decreased birth rate.
The CONTENT PROVIDER tour has now finished. Stewart has just completed a date, month tour of his most recent show, CONTENT PROVIDER. It has been on the road since November & finished in April Interview Assignment a Person 65 or Older: Aging Theories (Essay Sample) Instructions: in her life have contributed to who she is as a mature woman and below is the discussion of her responses regarding the continuity theory of normal aging.
Sacred Harp Singing In Western Massachusetts (WMSHC) Sacred Harp, or more correctly shape-note singing, is a truly glorious sound, totally unlike anything else in music.
Essay writing help. Hire a writer Get paper rewritten Editing service. Theory of Aging The Atchley’s Continuity Theory states that there are differences in the retirement experiences of various individuals over time.
People go through both discontinuity and stability as they grow old. There can be improvements or decline in the. Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London. We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study Abroad and short courses.