PAGE 9 2 Chapter 1: Government can be defined as the institutions and processes that make and implement authoritative decisions for a so ciety.
McPherson and Mary Jane Yazzie Billy Mike, the oldest living resident of the White Mesa Ute community, sat comfortably and slowly ran his fingers through his silver hair. The thick glasses perched upon his nose served more as a token of past vision than as an aid to see today's world.
Blind in one eye, and with failing sight in the other, he moved about slowly with the assistance of a cane. His life of ninety-some-odd years had spanned a period of transition for the Ute people.
At times, his mind wandered clearly over events from the past, while at other times his memory became clouded. But there was no doubt as he remembered his people's association with the land before it had been divided and controlled by the white man.
He recalled, "No one really owned the land.
It was like it owned us--the Ute Nuche people. Following the creation of the world, the gods contained the people of the earth in a large sack. The Shin-au-av brothers, Pavits and Skaits, received the bag with the instructions to carry it unopened to the center of the world.
However, curiosity overwhelmed Shin-au-av Skaits, who opened the bag and then watched many humans flee from its confines. Tav-woats, another god, saw what was happening, angrily resealed the bag, and took the remaining people to the only place left: Based upon their studies, the Numic-speaking peoples entered the Four Corners area close to the time of its abandonment by the Anasazi, roughly between A.
Exactly when and where these Native Americans came from is still open to debate. Most scholars agree that the initial homeland of Uto-Aztecan speakers was in the area of Death Valley in southern California.
Someyears ago this language family started to diversify into nine major groups known today. Numic speakers comprised one of these divisions, which includes the language spoken by today's Utes and Paiutes. Fanning out from their central location, these two groups moved northeasterly; but they remained on the edge of the Great Basin until about 1, years ago, when they moved rapidly into the basin and eventually onto the neighboring Colorado Plateau.
Their language became increasingly diversified as splits in groups occurred, one anthropologist suggesting that the Utes separated from the Southern Paiutes years ago as they settled in the Four Corners region. Southern Utes and Southern Paiutes recognize dialectical differences in speech, one Ute informant saying that the Paiutes' language is more "clipped" or abbreviated and that the Paiutes accused the Utes of "talking fancy.
Campsites and material remains are difficult to find and differentiate from those left by earlier peoples because of the small amount of pottery, nondescript dwellings, and limited technology necessitated by a hunting-and-gathering lifestyle.
The analysis is made even more difficult by the Utes' practice of utilizing other peoples' camps and material remains. The first one took place around the beginning of the Christian era, the second more than one thousand years later, around A. At the same time, Paiute culture became quite stable, with few changes in lifestyle and technology until well into the late nineteenth century.
Some archaeologists place the date of this entry later, during the s. The effect the intrusion had on the Anasazi is questionable, but some authors suggest that the reason for the sudden expansion of Numic speakers into the Great Basin and onto the Colorado Plateau occurred because of severe droughts during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Some anthropologists believe that this first could have caused relocation within, then evacuation of, those areas by the agriculturally oriented puebloans.
The Progressive Era Was a Rapidly Changing Time Period in America - The Progressive Era was the period from s to the s. This historical movement was fueled by the middle class (e.g. doctors, lawyers, teachers); mainly those living in the cities. The various civil rights movements of the 20th Century were also organized efforts to achieve a more just society for Blacks, women, and other minorities. Polit ical theorists continue to explore the meaning and importance of justice. Women and girls gathered seeds, prepared foods, and made clothing, baskets, and some pottery, while the men hunted larger game, made tools, wove blankets, built shelters, and helped women in rodent catching, burden bearing, and in collecting raw materials.
Numic speakers, better adapted to surviving the rigors of a desert environment, filled the occupation gaps left by the migrating Fremont and Anasazi cultures. In support of this theory, it is interesting to note that the Anasazi abandoned a well-developed community at Navajo Mountain by A.
They call the Anasazi the muukwitsi, meaning "the dead," and believe that the dead, their spirits, and spiders are interrelated.
This then helps explain why spiders often haunt the ruins. Utes use the same name to refer to the Hopi, "Moqui" pronounced Mawkwi, not Mokee --a term applied only to this pueblo group and which seems to have entered general usage following the Dominguez-Escalante expedition of that depended heavily upon Numic speakers for guides.
According to some Ute informants, there never was conflict with the Anasazi; among other things, they shared a language that could almost be understood. The Utes also tell how they would only see their neighbors sporadically because the Anasazi appeared "like phantoms and would be seen at a distance or be heard to scream, but would disappear into the pinyon when a Ute approached.
One explanation of migratory trends places Numic speakers in southwestern Utah some years ago aboutin southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado years ago, moving along the Rio Grande years ago, and out on the Great Plains--their easternmost expansion--some years ago.
By the early s, Spanish reports indicated that there were Utes living in northwestern Arizona, north of the Colorado and San Juan Rivers, and in eastern Colorado. Some confusion concerning names exists in the historic record.The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article.
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The Progressive Era Was a Rapidly Changing Time Period in America - The Progressive Era was the period from s to the s. This historical movement was fueled by the middle class (e.g. doctors, lawyers, teachers); mainly those living in the cities. Changes in american lifestyle in the roaring twenties urbanization rights granted to women and a nee; An analysis of the manic depressive disorder in teenage psychological disorders; How to write action plans for goals; Issues concerning the federal reserves policy dollar valuation financial debts healthcare costs; Example writing prompts.
Yet, the overall instances of alimony were relatively rare. This article explains the rise of anti-alimony sentiment during the late s through an examination of the gold digger trope. Anti-alimony agitation represented a response to the changes in women’s roles and sexual norms in the s.
A handful of women began the struggle that culminated in a right Americans take for granted today. New York City women's rights protestors, Ginsburg, the second woman ever appointed to the US Supreme Court, is an American treasure, one of the most influential women in recent American history,.
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